- Age Structure for Teams
- Appeal Plays
- Missing a base
- Lead off on a caught fly
- Attempting to advance to 2nd after a turn on first
- Illegal/altered bats
- Illegal gloves
- Batting out of order
- Base Running
- Umpire or Runner Hit by Ball
- Lead Offs
- Advancing without liability to be put out
- Runner is out
- Runner is not out
- Dislodged Base
- Pitcher Receives Ball After Runner has Legally Advanced
- Batting Order
- First at Bat
- Fair Ball
- Caught Fly Ball
- Foul Ball
- Foul Tip
- Home Run
- Infield Fly
- Out at Bat
- Awarded one base
- On Deck Batter
- Cancelled Games
- Safety Gear
- Double Bag
- Loose equipment on the field
- Ball Size
- Base Distance
- Home Plate
- Base Path
- Established Base Path
- Pitching Distance
- Fence Distance
- Force Out
- Home Team
- Injured Player
- Regulation Game
- Called Game
- “6 run rule”
- Missed Games
- Mixed Fast Pitch
- Time to Pitch
- Dead Ball
- Strike Zone
- Third Strike Rule
- Closed Conference
- Age structure:
Age as of 12 midnight, December 31, of the current year.
- Bantam 16-19
- Peewee 13-15
- Squirt 11-12
- Appeal Plays: An umpire cannot make a decision unless requested by a
manager, coach or player. The appeal must be made before the next pitch. At the
end of any inning, appeals must be made before the defensive team leaves the
field. At the end of the game, appeals may be made until the umpire leaves the
field. Appeals can be made for the following reasons:
- Missing a base.
- Leaving a base on a caught fly ball before the ball is first touched.
- attempting to advance to 2nd after making a turn on first;
- illegal/altered bats;
- Illegal gloves.
- Batting out of order.
- If the appeal is called while the wrong batter is still up to bat, the correct batter assumes his place and strikes and balls are assumed by the replacement batter, and any runs scored or bases run are legal.
- If the wrong batter is already on first base at the time of the appeal, the batter who should have batted is marked as out and the wrong batter returns to the dugout, and any runs scored or bases run are nullified.
- If the error is not appealed until after a pitch has been thrown to the next batter, then the incorrect batter is legal and the batter who missed a turn must wait until their turn comes up again in the batting order.
- Base Running: The runners must touch the bases in legal order (i.e. 1st,
2nd, 3rd, home) and in reverse order when returning, while the ball is in play.
First base is the only base that can be overrun without being tagged out.
However, if the runner rounds first base and starts towards 2nd base they can be
tagged out. A runner may stay on a base unless forced to vacate by a succeeding
runner. When a runner dislodges a base, neither he nor succeeding runners in the
same series of plays are compelled to follow a base unreasonably out of
position. Two runners may not occupy the same base at the same time (when two
runners occupy the same base the runner who first legally occupied it is
entitled to it unless forced to advance). A runner may not return to touch a
missed base after a succeeding runner has scored, after he has entered the team
dugout, or after the ball becomes dead. When a walk is issued, all runners must
touch bases in legal order. Bases left too soon on a caught fly ball must be
retouched while en-route to awarded bases.
- If the ball hits an umpire or runner:
- after touching a fielder, including the pitcher, the ball is in play;
- after passing a fielder other than the pitcher, the ball is in play;
- or before passing a fielder, excluding the pitcher, without being touched, the ball is dead.
- If a runner is hit by the ball while touching a base he is not out.
- A runner may not leave his base until the ball has left the pitchers hand.
- A runner may advance without liability to be put out:
- when forced to vacated a base because a batter was awarded a base on balls;
- When a fielder obstructs a runner from making a base, unless the fielder is trying to field a batted ball, has the ball and is trying to tag the runner, or is about to receive a thrown ball. In the case of an obstruction, the ball will remain live, and if the obstructed runner is tagged out before reaching the next base, the ball will be called a dead ball and he and any other runner effected by the obstruction will be awarded the base he would, in the umpires judgement, have reached had there been no obstruction. If the obstructed runner is put out after passing the base he would have reached had there not been an obstruction, he is out, and the ball remains live. Any act of interference by the obstructed player will result in the obstruction being nullified.
- In the case of a “fake tag” by a fielder, a warning should be given to both teams, with the next “fake tag” resulting in the ejection of the said player;
- When a wild pitch or passed ball goes under, over through or lodges in the backstop, the ball is dead and all runners are awarded a base, with the batter awarded 1st base only on a 4th ball;
- When forced to vacate a base because the batter was awarded a base;
- When the pitcher makes an illegal pitch;
- When a fielder contacts or catches a fair ball with his cap, mask, glove or any part of his uniform while it is detached from its proper place on his person (3 bases on a batted ball from the time of the pitch; 2 bases from the time of the throw on a thrown ball);
- when the ball is in play and is overthrown beyond the boundary lines or is blocked (2 bases from the time the ball left the fielders hand);
- When a fielder loses possession of the ball, such as attempting a tag, and the ball enters the dead ball area or becomes blocked, all runners are awarded one base from the last base touched at the time the ball entered the dead ball area or became blocked;
- When a live ball is unintentionally carried into dead ball territory by a fielder all runners are awarded one base from the last base touched at the time the fielder entered dead ball territory. When the fielder intentionally carries the ball into dead ball territory all runners are awarded two bases;
- A runner is out:
- If he runs the bases in reverse order either to confuse the fielders or make a travesty of the game
- When he runs more than 3 feet outside of his established base path to avoid a tag (except as specified in section 3.5.1. & 3.5.2.);
- when not touching a base and touched with the ball in the hand of a fielder;
- when a fielder with the ball touches the base or the runner with the ball before the runner touches the base on a force play;
- when a runner physically passes a preceding runner before that runner has been put out, when the ball is in play;
- when a fielder with the ball in his hand touches the base, or touches the runner with the ball, before the runner returns to the base they left before a fly ball was caught;
- when a runner misses a base and the ball is held on that base while the ball is in play and before the runner returns to the base;
- when a runner is struck by a fair batted ball while off base and before it passes an infielder excluding the pitcher unless, in the umpires opinion, no fielder had an opportunity to make an out;
- When a runner intentionally kicks a fair ball that an infielder has missed;
- When a runner deliberately interferes with a fielder attempting to field a fair batted ball, or intentionally interferes with a thrown ball;
- When anyone, other than another runner physically assists the runner while the ball is in play;
- When attempting to score on a play in which the batter, in the umpires judgement, interferes with the play being made at home;
- When the coach near third base runs in the direction of home plate near the baseline and draws a throw to home plate (the runner nearest third base will be called out);
- When one or more members of the offensive team stand around a base to which a runner is advancing thereby confusing the fielders and adding to the difficulty of making the play;
- If a coach intentionally interferes with a thrown ball or interferes with the defensive teams opportunity to make a play on a runner (the runner closest to home plate at the time of the interference is called out);
- When a runner who has been called out or who has scored interferes with a defensive players attempt to make a play on another runner (the runner closest to home plate at the time of the interference is called out);
- When a runner remains on his feet and deliberately crashes into a fielder who has the ball or is about to receive a thrown ball and is waiting for the runner (the ball is dead and other runners must return to the last base touched at the time of the collision);
- When a runner fails to keep contact with the base to which he is entitled until the pitch has been released;
- When he abandons a base, does not attempt to advance to the next base, and enters the team area or leaves the field of play;
- A runner is not out:
- If he runs off the base path to avoid interfering with a fielder attempting to field the ball in the base path;
- If he runs off the base path other than to avoid a fielder touching him with the ball;
- When hit by a fair bated ball that has passed through an infielder, excluding the pitcher and, in the umpires judgement, no other fielder had a chance to make an out;
- when hit by a fair batted ball after it is touched by any infielder, including the pitcher, and he could not avoid contact with the ball;
- when touched by a ball not held securely in the fielders hand;
- when the defensive team does not request the umpire´s decision on an appeal play until after the next pitch;
- when not given sufficient time to return to a base before the next pitch;
- when a runner holds his base until a fly ball touches a fielder and then starts to advance;
- When hit by a batted ball while touching their awarded base unless deliberately interfering with a play;
- When a runner slides into a base and dislodges it the base is considered to have followed the runner;
- A runner who had legally started to advance cannot be stopped by the pitcher receiving the ball while on the pitching plate or by stepping on the pitching plate with the ball in his possession;
- If the ball hits an umpire or runner:
- Batting: A batted ball is any ball that hits the bat or is hit by the
bat, intentionally or otherwise. The batter must have both feet in the batter´s
box prior to the start of the pitch, and must take his position within 10
seconds after the umpire has called ´play ball.´ If the batter does not enter
the batter´s box within 10 seconds as above a strike will be called. No pitch
has to be thrown
- The batting order must be followed through out the game. The first batter of each inning will be the batter whose name follows that of the last player who completed a turn at bat in the preceding inning.
- First at bat is decided by the toss of a coin unless otherwise stated.
- Fair Ball: A legally batted ball that:
- settles or is touched on fair ground between home and 1st or home and 3rd;
- bounds past 1st or 3rd on or over fair ground;
- touches 1st or 3rd base;
- while on or over fair ground touches the clothing or person of an umpire or player;
- first falls on fair ground beyond 1st or 3rd base;
- while over fair territory passed out of the playing field beyond the outfield fence;
- hits a foul line pole on the fly;
- If a caught fly ball, a fair fly shall be judged according to the relative position of the ball and the foul line, including the foul pole, and not as to whether the fielder is on fair or foul territory at the time he touches the ball.
- A ball is called:
- when a pitched ball does not enter the strike zone, touches the ground before reaching home plate, or touches home plate and which is not struck at by the batter (the ball is in play);
- When there is an illegally pitched ball, when the pitcher fails to pitch the ball within 20 seconds, and for excessive warm-up pitches (the ball is dead).
- A strike is called:
- when a pitched ball passes through the strike zone and is not swung at by the batter or is swung at and missed;
- For each foul tip (the ball is in play and runners may advance with the liability to be put out);
- when a foul ball is not caught and the batter has less than 2 strikes;
- when a pitched ball is swung at and missed and touches any part of the batter;
- When the batter does not enter the batters box within 10 seconds of the umpire calling “play ball”;
- when a batter is hit by his own batted ball while still in the batters box and has less than 2 strikes;
- When a pitched ball hits the batter while the ball is in the strike zone (the ball is dead and runners must return to their bases without liability of being put out).
- When a foul tip goes directly to the catcher and is caught.
- Foul Ball: The ball is dead unless it is a legally caught fly, in which
case the batter is out and the runners may advance with liability to be put out
after the ball has been touched. A strike is called on the batter unless he
already has two strikes (unless the batter bunts foul with two strikes already
against him, or it is a legally caught fly, which both result in the batter
being called out) A batted ball is foul:
- when it settles on foul ground between home and first base or home and third base;
- when it bounds past first or third over foul ground;
- when it first touches foul ground beyond 1st or 3rd base;
- While on or over foul ground , it touches the person or clothing of an umpire or player or is blocked;
- When it immediately rebounds up from the ground or home plate and hits the bat a second time while the batter is in the batter´s box.
- Foul Tip: A batted ball which goes directly from the bat not higher than the batters head, to the catchers hands, and is, caught by the catcher. It is not a foul tip unless caught and any foul tip is a strike. The ball is in play.
- Home run:
- The batter is entitled to a home run:
- .When a fair batted ball goes over the outfield fence or strikes the foul pole above the fence level;
- When the ball goes directly off a fielder´s glove or body then over the fence, or makes contact with the top of the fence and goes over into fair territory;
- The batter is not entitled to a home run:
- When a fair-batted ball goes directly off the fence deflecting off the fielder and then over the fence (it is a two base award);
- When the ball passed out of grounds at a distance from home plate less than that prescribed in Rule 9.5.6. (the batter is entitled to two bases only);
- The batter is entitled to a home run:
- Infield Fly: A fair ball (not including a line drive or attempted bunt) which can be caught by an infielder with ordinary effort, when 1st and 2nd, or 1st, 2nd, and 3rd bases are occupied, and before there are two are out. The pitcher, catcher, or anyone positioned in the infield on the play shall be considered an infielder for the purpose of this rule. When it seems apparent that the batted ball will be an infield fly, the umpire shall immediately declare “INFIELD FLY: IF FAIR THE BATTER IS OUT” for the benefit of the runners. The ball is alive and runners may advance at the risk of the ball being caught, or they may retouch the base and advance after the ball is touched, the same as any fly ball. If the hit becomes a foul ball, it is treated the same as any fly ball.
- The batter is out:
- on a legally caught fly ball;
- when the third strike is struck at and missed and touches any part of the batter´s person;
- on an infield fly with runners on 1st and 2nd or on 1st , 2nd , and 3rd with less than two out;
- when the third strike is caught by the catcher before the ball touches the ground (in squirts and under the third strike is considered caught and the batter is out even if the catcher misses the ball);
- When the third strike is with less than 2 out and 1st base is occupied;
- When he/she bunts foul after the second strike;
- When the batter hits the ball and becomes a runner, and a preceding runner , in the umpires judgement, deliberately interferes with a fielders attempt to throw or catch a ball in an attempt to complete a play ( both the runner who interferes with the play and the batter-runner are out);
- When the batter steps directly across in front of the catcher to the other batters box while the pitcher is taking a signal from the pitching plate and prior to the release of the ball (the ball is dead).
- When the batter intentionally interferes with a play at home plate;
- When the batter´s entire foot is touching the ground outside the batting box when the ball is hit.
- A batter is awarded one base without liability to be
- when four balls have been called by the umpire;
- When hit by a ball not struck at while in the batters box after a reasonable attempt to get out of the way (if, in the umpires judgement, the batter does not make a reasonable attempt to get out of the way of the pitch, it will be called a ball or strike according to its position).
- Bunt: A batted ball not swung at but intentionally met with the bat and tapped slowly within the infield. The batter is out if he bunts foul after the second strike.
- On deck batter: The offensive player who follows the batter in the batting order. The on deck batter is to take position within the lines of the on-deck circle nearest his/her bench. The batter or coach may request the on-deck batter use the circle nearest the other team´s bench for reasons of safety.
- Cancelled Games: Fitness of the ground for a game is to be decided solely by the plate umpire. An umpire can call a game at any time due to darkness, rain, fire, panic or other cause, which may put patrons, umpires, or players in peril.
- Catch: A ball must be caught by a hand or glove. If it is held in the arms or prevented from dropping to the ground by some part of the body or clothing, the catch is not completed until it is in the grasp of a hand or glove. It is not a catch if the fielder immediately after he contacts the ball, collides with another player, or wall, or falls to the ground and drops the ball as a result. The fielder must hold the ball long enough to prove he/she has complete control of the ball (and his/her body), and that his/her release is voluntary and intentional.
- Coaches: Two coaches are allowed to give direction and words of assistance to members of their team while at bat. They are obliged to stay in their respective coach´s box (one at 1st base and one at 3rd base). They may only address players of their own team. They may not use language that will reflect negatively on players, umpires or spectators.
- Ejection: An umpire may order a player, official, or any team member to leave the game and the grounds for a repeated violation of the rules, or a deliberate or un-sportsman-like act. Failure to comply will warrant a forfeiture of the game.
- All players must wear uniforms and shoes in order to play. Shirts must be buttoned up and sleeves not rolled up. Pitchers must have their shirts tucked in while pitching. Ball caps are mandatory.
- Safety gear: Helmets must be worn by batters, on deck batters, runners, and catchers. Catchers must also wear a mask and throat protector, cup and body protector. Protective gear must also be worn by catchers while receiving warm-up pitches.
- A double base is to be used on first, with the white portion in fair territory and the orange portion in foul territory. The defensive player must use the white portion. A batter-runner must touch the orange portion when running to first base and is not considered safe until he/she has done so. A runner rounding first to proceed towards second may touch the white portion, and runners returning to first on a tag up or for any other reason than to first touch first as a batter runner, must use the white portion.
- Equipment must not be left lying on the field.
- Jewelry or other items judged dangerous by the umpire may not be worn during the game, and if a player refuses to remove such items at the request of the umpire they will be removed from the game.
- Ball Size:
- Bantam 12
- Peewee 12
- Squirt 11
- Base distances:
- Bantam 60 feet
- Peewee 60 feet
- Squirts 55 feet
- Home Plate to Backstop: 17-25 feet
- Base Path: An imaginary line 3 feet (1 m) to either side of a direct line between bases.
- An established base path is an imaginary line from the runner to the base to which he/she is advancing, and comes into effect when the fielder receives the ball and begins his attempt to tag the runner.
- Pitching distance:
- Bantam 42 feet
- Peewee 40 feet
- Squirts 35 feet
- Fence Distance:
- Bantam 200-245 feet
- Peewee 190-245 feet
- Squirt 170-225 feet
- Base distances:
- Force Out: An out which can only be made when a runner losses the right to a base he is occupying because the batter becomes a runner, and before the batter or succeeding runner has been put out.
- Forfeitures: The score of forfeiture is 7- 0 in favor of the team not at fault. The plate umpire may forfeit the game if any umpire is attacked physically by any team member or spectator, or may call a forfeiture in favor of the team not at fault in the following situations: a team fails to appear on the field or refuses to begin at the scheduled time; after the game has begun, one side refuses to continue play; one side fails to resume playing within 2 minutes after the umpire has called “play ball”; a team, after warning by the umpire, deliberately tries to delay or hasten the game, or continues to violate any of the rules of the game; the order to eject a player or any person authorized to sit on the team bench is not obeyed within 1 minute; Because of removal or ejection of players, there are less than 9 players.
- Home Team: The home team is the first team marked on the schedule, and is responsible for putting out the bases.
- Injured Player: “Blood Rule”: a player whose bleeding will not stop or whose uniform becomes bloodied must be removed from the game, and can be substituted by another player. A runner who becomes injured may be replaced with another runner without penalty. A player who is injured may be removed from the batting order without penalty, and may be re-introduced to their original place in the batting order should they be able to safely resume play before the game is ended.
- Innings: A regulation game is 7 innings. The full 7 innings need not be played if the team 2nd at bat is ahead in runs before their 3rd out in the 7th inning. A game called by the umpire will be a regulation game if 5 or more complete innings have been played or the 2nd team at bat has scored more runs prior to the 3rd out in their half. An umpire can call a game at any time due to darkness, rain, fire, panic or other cause, which may put patrons, umpires, or players in peril. A “6 run rule” will restrict the maximum number of runs obtained by either team in each half inning, during all but the last (“open”) inning. Following six runs, the half inning will be over. During the last inning of the game there is no limit on the number of runs attained. A game called by the umpire before the completion or designation of an open inning will be considered a regulation game if 5 or more innings have been completed.
- Missed games: Games cancelled must be made up or no points will be awarded to either team. If a coach has problems rescheduling a missed game, then they must let their division manager know. The manager will then set up a game time. If one team does not come then they will have forfeited the game and a win will be awarded to the team who shows. If neither teams show, no points will be awarded. In scheduling games, regulation games will take precedence over make up games, and make-up games will take precedence over practices.
- Mixed Fast Pitch: Male pitchers may not windmill pitch to female batters unless otherwise directed by the female batter, who may choose to receive windmill pitches. Female pitchers may windmill to both female or male batters without restriction. All players, whether male or female, must be given equal opportunity to play, and no player may be sat out more than three innings unless injured or otherwise removed from the game.
- Overthrow: A play in which the ball is thrown from one fielder to another,
resulting in the ball going beyond the boundaries of the playing field or
- All runners are awarded two bases on a first throw by an infielder, from the base the runner was on at the time of the pitch;
- On a second play, or succeeding play by an infielder the two bases are governed by the position of the runner at the time of the final throw;
- On throws by an outfielder, the two bases will be awarded by the position of the runners at the time of the throw. The award is governed by the lead runner.
- Obstruction: A defensive team member that hinders or prevents a batter from striking or hitting a pitched ball, or a fielder not in possession of the ball, not in the act of fielding the ball, and not about to receive a thrown ball, who impedes the progress of a runner or batter-runner who is legally running the bases. “About to receive a thrown ball” means the ball must be between the runner and the defensive player about to catch the ball. Otherwise, obstruction should be called.
- Pick-ups: Teams can pick-up a player from a lower division if they are
- Pick-ups must be registered players;
- They must have the permission of their coach.
- Pick-up players must be at the field at game time, and once the game has started, one pick up player cannot be substituted for another pick-up player. Pick-up players can only be used to field 9 players.
- In the event of injury, another registered pick-up player can be picked up if available, and if approved by the umpire.
- Pick-up players cannot pitch or catch, except in extreme circumstances, with prior agreement between coaches and approval of the umpire at the field.
- Pick-up players are added to the bottom of the batting order.
- Once a pick-up has been added to the lineup, they can not be replaced- subsequent players arriving may be added to the bottom of the batting lineup if they are members of that team.
- Pitching: The pitcher must start with both feet on the pitching rubber. The
pitch starts when the pitcher makes any motion that is part of his/her wind-up.
In the act of delivering the ball, the pitcher must not take more than one step,
which must be forward, and simultaneous with the delivery of the ball towards
the batter. The pivot foot may remain in contact with or-push off and drag away
from the pitching plate prior to the non-pivot foot touching the ground,
provided that the toe of the pivot foot remains in contact with the ground. The
pitch must be delivered with an underhand motion. The pitcher may not drop, roll
or bounce the ball while in pitching position in order to prevent the batter
from hitting it. The pitcher shall not throw to a base during a live play while
his foot is in contact with the pitcher´s plate after he has taken the pitching
position. He may remove himself from the pitching position by stepping backward
off the pitcher´s plate.
- The pitcher has 20 seconds to release the ball after receiving the ball or after the umpire indicates ´play ball.´
- Warm-up: At the beginning of each half inning, or when a pitcher relieves another, no more than 1 minute may be used to deliver no more than 5 pitches to the catcher or other teammate.
- The pitcher may use any wind-up desired providing
- does not make any motion to pitch the ball with out immediately delivering it to the batter;
- does not use a rocker motion in which, after having the ball in both hands in pitching position, he removes one hand from the ball, takes a backward and forward swing and returns the ball to both hands in front of the body;
- does not use a wind-up in which there is a stop or reversal of the forward motion;
- does not make more than one revolution in the windmill pitch;
- and does not continue to wind-up after taking a forward step which is simultaneous with the release of the ball.
- The ball will be declared dead and all subsequent
action on that pitch is cancelled when:
- the pitcher attempts a quick return of the ball before the batter has taken his position or is off balance as a result of the previous pitch;
- the runner is called out for leaving the base prior to the release of the pitch;
- the pitcher pitches before a runner has retouched his base after a foul ball;
- Or the pitch is during a suspension of play.
- Players: A team must have the required number of players present to start
or continue a game. Otherwise the game is forfeit.
- Bantam 9 players
- Peewee 9 players
- Squirt 9 players
- A player must be present and in uniform to be in the starting line-up. Other members may be added to the bottom of the line-up at any time during the game.
- Any player may be substituted from the game at any time, provided the umpire is notified.
- Players on the offensive team may be stationed anywhere on fair territory, except the catcher and pitcher, who must be in the catcher´s box and pitchers circle, respectively, when putting the ball into play.
- Exception: a team that has only 8 players may enter the game with the absent 9th player registering as an automatic out in the batting order.
- Runs: One run is scored each time a runner legally touches 1st, 2nd, 3rd,
and home plate before the 3rd out of the inning. A run will not be scored if the
last out of an inning is the result of:
- a runner being forced out;
- the runner leading off before the pitch is received;
- A preceding runner being declared out.
- Stealing: The act of a runner trying to advance during a pitch to the batter. The runner can not lead off until the ball has left the pitchers hand, and must tag up on a fly ball.
- Strike Zone: The space over any part of home plate between the batters arm pits and the top of his knees when the batter assumes his/her natural batting stance. “Over any part of home plate” includes one ball width on either side of the plate, as only one edge of the ball must be over the plate for it to be considered in the strike zone.
- Third Strike Rule: The batter is not out on the 3rd strike when the catcher fails to catch the ball before it touches the ground when there are less than two outs and 1st base is unoccupied, or anytime there are two outs. In Squirts and under the third strike rule does not apply, and the batter is out on a third strike regardless of whether the catcher catches the ball.
- Closed Conference: There will be no more than one closed conference by the offensive team to confer with a runner or batter each inning, and no more than one by the defensive team to confer with each pitcher during each inning. The closed conference rule does not apply to Squirts and under.
- Umpires: Umpires are to be provided by the home team for Mites and under, and where possible, will be provided by the league for Squirts and up (it is otherwise the home team´s responsibility).
- Variances: Sechelt Minor Softball will apply standard minor fast-pitch rules (as per Softball BC) wherever possible. However, Sechelt Minor Softball is a rural community league, and reserves the right to adopt variances to the above rules, in order to accommodate fluctuating registration numbers, diversity of player´s experience, and the like. Variances will not be considered official with out the written approval of the Sechelt Minor Softball Association.